UAL flight 328

  • күнү жарыяланды 7 күн мурун

    AgentJayZ

    узактыгы: 16:12

    Observations of the video available showing the engine failure and fire aboard United Airlines flight 328 on Feb 20 2021.
    From the point of view of an engine guy.
    Here is a link to P&W's page about this engine:
    prattwhitney.com/products-and-services/products/commercial-engines/pw4000-112
    Here's an operating manual for the P&W4000 series engines for pilots:
    www.theairlinepilots.com/forumarchive/a310/a310pw4000seriesoperation.pdf
    The Turbofan design engineer referred to in the video is my friend grahamj9101
    When the final NTSB report is released, we will see how close or how far off the mark I really am.

EATSLEEPJD
EATSLEEPJD

Although technically a contained failure (Fan blades are contained) it doesn't look good the inlet cowl, fan cowl and T/R just ripped off. The inlet cowl that came off Southwest plane killed a lady (Even thought it was a contained failure also). They need to investigate more in to the cowls so they can handle and stay on during these type of events. This could really have hurt someone on board or even on the ground.

2 саат мурун
Richard Reavis
Richard Reavis

(2/20/21 Denver->Honolulu) None of the vids I've seen on this yet mention what date this happened, and most not where they were headed from Denver. An extra couple seconds would be appreciated. Thanks!

13 саат мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

I don't get it. You answered your own question before you asked it.

13 саат мурун
Greatdome99
Greatdome99

Well said and mostly accurate. To a news reporter, the whole thing below the wing is an 'engine.' To the real world, the engine (built by P&W and others) is covered in cowling, which is what flew off. I've seen one YouTube video that showed how the bigger fan blade flew FORWARD of the engine inlet flange, slicing the aluminum nose cowl (landed in someone's front yard). That caused a chain reaction that led to loss of the fan cowl and parts of the Thrust Reversers (honeycomb composite, not metal). Furthermore, that blade then sliced open the wing-to-body fairing (non-structural composite), so this just might be an uncontained failure and it could have penetrated the fuselage. You can bet no one at Pratt is sleeping well tonight.

15 саат мурун
Daniel S
Daniel S

Maybe there is a comment amongst the 945 preceding comments about who would call PAN, PAN, PAN meaning the vessel is in danger but the passengers aren't. I guess this would be a single seat military aircraft where there are no passengers.

19 саат мурун
Dejezeri
Dejezeri

Jay, With engine damage like that you can't fly theoretically an ETOPS flight. The main reason is that the drag would be much higher than the standard estimates - [performance and fuel consumption would be as a test flight], besides a catastrophic failure has many other unknowns, structural, leaks etc. An ETOPS continuation is based on an engine shutdown only. Now it "should" be able to fly on for several hours on one engine, but you won't be going anywhere far away unless you have no other choice. What is your opinion about evidence suggesting a fan blade part sliced forward thru the leading edge anti-ice ring? ...Edit: I am thinking the source I saw for this damage may not be reliable, so maybe no evidence at all, best to wait for ntsb info. directly.

19 саат мурун
Chris Szumiloski
Chris Szumiloski

Interesting.

19 саат мурун
John Melling
John Melling

Hmm, theres something weirdly exciting about an engine failure once the plane is safely back on the ground and everybody is safe. Is it just me who loves the investigation and learning what went wrong? I guess i get it from my Grandad who loved his car breaking down so that he could repair it! Im surprised to hear that they will likely repaor this engine. I thought it would of been scrapped Have you ever had any engines in for repair with heavy damage like this Jay, broken blades etc?

20 саат мурун
MrRexQuando
MrRexQuando

Totally agree on the bad coverage on the news! Love your videos. Remember the pilot has "fuse pins" which in theory should have had the engine break free (in theory) before it damaged the structure of the wing. Why not fly to Hawaii 1. You shatter one engine ETOPS be damned you may have the same failure. 2. (biggest reason) you can't maintain cruise altitude with 1 engine spinning and all the drag of the missing nacelle.

20 саат мурун
greg smith
greg smith

Surprised how heavy each blade is.. aren't these hi cycle engines having issues..?

23 саат мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

Hmmm, my response to your vagueness is some vagueness of my own: " It certainly appears so, doesn't it?"

22 саат мурун
robert m
robert m

What’s that old thing behind you I have been working on large aircraft since I was 22 years of age

Күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

Orenda 14. Fighter jet engine. Canadair Sabre 6. North American Aviation F86-F, but made in Canada.

Күн мурун
Alex Altrichter
Alex Altrichter

After reading many of the comments I was impressed by the number of professional jet engine technicians on here. If it was uncontained the fuselage would have looked like a strainer.

Күн мурун
Mike Hoolihan
Mike Hoolihan

The -300ER and the 200/200ER have “Major” differences and is worth the time to look up! Totally different Engines, Specs, Wings and Landing Gear.

Күн мурун
Sheila Walker
Sheila Walker

The 'it is unless it isn't' politician approach to the partly pregnant contained or not turbine engine failure. Not wanting to get into the debate-discussion as to what is contained and uncontained. The FAA skirts this issue that demonstrates quite admirably there are a lot of politicians or would be politicians among their ranks. https://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC_33-5.pdf Jay's point > The engine casing is the only containment of the engine in the event of a catastrophic engine failure. Technically therefore, if an excursion did not pass through the casing there was no Uncontained Failure - with the possible exception of debris exiting out the back of the engine. UA Flight 328 incident involved debris which penetrated the fuselage directly below and approximately center of the wing and included a section of the wing box fairing. This is regarded as an incidental excursion outside engine design specifications. All the rationalizing and hair splitting aside, Jay is correct. The engine casing performed within design specifications. There was no uncontained excursions. If the engine casing was to extend, say, out beyond the nose and tail of the aircraft the potential for flying debris from a catastrophic failure would be significantly reduced, but not entirely eliminated. Of course such engines would never be attached to an aircraft. And to address another talking point. No, a private citizen may not keep parts that flew off of aircraft. All such parts are considered evidence in an investigation. In the event that the investigation does not lead to criminal charges said individual can petition the court to release debris that was found upon the property of the individual. Best of luck there since the court would be keeping in mind a precedent may be set by such a determination. Jay, can we get back to jet engines don't burn fuel in flight? Or maybe an in depth discussion of the JT11D-20 engine? Or start a new topic -> 10 fun things you can do with triethylborane in your house?

Күн мурун
Ὅρα Μή·
Ὅρα Μή·

- Contained Failure - The amount of kinetic energy of all moving parts within a turbine engine, as most already understand, is tremendous. In the case of a catastrophic turbine engine failure, the energy released is equivalent/similar to that of a detonation of a high explosive (nitroglycerin, TNT, HMX). What the industry is realistically concerned about, is containing that "explosion", thus safeguarding the airframe from being damaged/destroyed, and the lives of the passengers from being put to danger by the high velocity shrapnel (fan blades, turbine disc etc). Debri/engine parts falling off harmlessly (hopefully) after that initial "explosion" is inevitable, and realistically unavoidable. If after a turbine engine failure, the engine cases are intact (not breached) that is in fact, and realistically speaking a successful contained failure. In other words, the engine cases have successfully contained the "explosion" (i.e. the lethal high energy/velocity shrapnel).

Күн мурун
Greatdome99
Greatdome99

Yes, but an explosion involves a chemical reaction. This was a mechanical "crash"

15 саат мурун
Craig Arndt
Craig Arndt

Wait until that clown from NBC News, Chief Aviation Correspondent gets his teeth into this engine failure. He works for the same company that tried to prove GM trucks gas tanks exploded. When they could get it to explode from a rear end collision, they planted explosives to be sure it would. The media is just a circus. This is a great channel.

Күн мурун
humanhiveanomaly
humanhiveanomaly

Truth isn't as profitable as selling amplified and manufactured drama.

Күн мурун
vaughnbay
vaughnbay

The power of the cellphone camera! Had a few seconds of video not been recorded by a passenger we wouldn't have even heard of this failure. Humans like being emotional. It's more fun than being objective.

2 күн мурун
desiatohotblack
desiatohotblack

I'm sure the good folks over at the NTSB will get arrive at the right answers when the dust settles, but as long as we're all speculating: There ought to be some consideration that the broken fan blade might be a result, and not the cause. After all, severe vibration notwithstanding, no real theories have been offered as to why a thrown blade would cause a fire in the hot section. Compressor stalls could result in that. When they do occur --at a rate way more frequent than that of failed fan blades, I think-- they may manifest themselves across the whole range of drama, from the barely noticeable, discernable only by discrete powerplant-monitoring instrumentation, all the way to the very attention-grabbing loud bangs, explosions, and shaking, with flames blowtorching out of both the back and front ends. Along with broken engine parts, sometimes. "Axi-symmetric stall, more commonly known as compressor surge; or pressure surge, is a complete breakdown in compression resulting in a reversal of flow and the violent expulsion of previously compressed air out through the engine intake, due to the compressor's inability to continue working against the already-compressed air behind it." https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressor_stall "If... the conditions that induced the stall remain, the return of stable airflow will reproduce the conditions at the time of surge and the process will repeat." "Such a "locked-in" or self-reproducing stall is particularly dangerous, with very high levels of vibration causing accelerated engine wear and possible damage, even the total destruction of the engine through the breaking of compressor and stator vanes and their subsequent ingestion, destroying engine components downstream." Could happen. The NTSB investigation will reveal all.

2 күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

As always excellent review thank you AgentZ.

2 күн мурун
Justin Fritz
Justin Fritz

Your recognition of the specialized knowledge that engineers possess is refreshing and appreciated. Good engineers recognize that the mechanics and maintenance personnel also possess the unique mix of knowledge and skills needed to make the whole big thing work. Great video!!

2 күн мурун
A Hannam
A Hannam

Praise the wing they can handle a lot of stress and load

2 күн мурун
Star Gazer
Star Gazer

Love your channel and info however, if *I* were P&W, that particular engine would be scrapped after investigation. What customer (Boeing or airline) would want to take delivery of that particular engine?

2 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

I imagine an exchange between the owner of the engine and the overhaul shop might go a little like: Well, the estimated cost for rebuilding and recertifying this engine will be about 15 million dollars, or we can get a new one for 21 plus taxes... Your choice.

2 күн мурун
Star Gazer
Star Gazer

@AgentJayZ what I mean is that: Who would want to take delivery of this engine?- by serial number- and being "rebuilt" by P&W and say "yeah, it's good, we trust it...". If I'm an airline, Imma say "No, you provide me a different engine than the one that blew up...". AgentJayZ, you don't know me but we both fix airplanes. I'm just sayin that no airline or even Boeing should accept this engine, by serial number, as "repaired" enough to fly again. If they choose to part it out, fine, but to repair it and send it on it's way, no. No one should want this one. If I owned a personal airplane and the Lycoming IO540 blew and seized and Lycoming "rebuilt" it, I don't think I'd want that particular engine block, I'd want a different one altogether.....

2 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

Blaaaagh. There are procedures the professionals follow regarding the evaluation of multi million dollar parts that people like you are completely ignorant of. You bet I said people like you, and you bet I said ignorant. Ignorant people like you. Now go away.

2 күн мурун
Gavin Green
Gavin Green

Please don't stop your rantings you, Juan Browne and Victor at Vass Avaition are the no nonsense professionals. You have every right, you all tell it straight! Keep up the great work! Love to learn the incredible design and engineering that make these machines power our world. Bet we all would be lost if there were no turbine engines or those that keep them flying, etc.

2 күн мурун
Adnan Kaba
Adnan Kaba

Engine is not scrap? are you serious? Sure as hell looks scrap to me! Why would they in their right mind even take a chance with repairing it with parts? That's absolute lunacy!

2 күн мурун
L J
L J

@AgentJayZ Morning AgentJayZ. Yes, to a working stiff AMT like myself it's a hell of a lot of money! But like you said it'll be torn down, inspected piece by piece to determine what happened, and if there's anything left to salvage it'll be put back into service. It'll be interesting to see if the Feds require that the NDT inspection intervals be updated on the PW's. I don't work for UA, and my experience is mostly with GE's and Roll's, but whenever we pull blades for a fan lube the blades are NDT'ed before reinstallation. I'm sure UA does the same so I'm also curious to know why it failed. Had corrosion set in? Did a stress riser form due to FOD damage? Was the blade ever dropped? I can't imagine it left PW with a flaw in the metallurgy, but I guess it could happen. Regardless, I have no doubt Pratt, UA, and the Feds are all over this and will figure it out!

2 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

Thanks, L J. I just checked, and the new cost of P&W 4000-112 is 21 million US Dollars. That's a lot, right?

2 күн мурун
L J
L J

It looked much worse than it actually was. That's a 10 million dollar engine, just for a worn out core, so yes it'll be repaired. People don't realize a lot of times on these older airframes the engines are worth more than the aircraft itself and most of times are leased.

2 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

So says another expert... Everything will be inspected, and each part will either fail or pass the required tests. If a part passes, it is serviceable. Now, Mr. Adnan Kaba: go away, read some books, and do not comment until you reach the minimum level of competency. Thank you.

2 күн мурун
andy5478
andy5478

I'll tell you the same thing I told Blancoliro--- You have a fascinating channel and you do a great job explaining. But there is nothing to be gained by bashing the media and calling them alarmists. To your own admission this was a big deal. To the untrained it was even a bigger deal. Semantics of whether it was contained or uncontained is irrelevant to those involved and the community below where the parts rained down. I'm sure pax on the right side especially were terrified at the sight. You may have been as well if you were on that plane. I probably would have been as well and I'm a very calm person, ppl and engineer. The crew called may day which meant they thought it was a big deal as well. Even a contained failure can be deadly as we tragically witnessed on SW 1380. Seems like it was pure luck that the fan blade didn't rip through the cabin of this UAL flight in the same manner.

2 күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

I don’t feel your accusations towards Blancolirio of bashing the media was anywhere near warranted but clearly understood by his viewers well, with the exception here, what he was referring too. I think the track record of the media with their hype and fabrication of incidences of this nature plus improper use of terms speaks for itself. You sound like a very knowledgeable person and your defense for the media may be due to having a relative or close friend in the occupation. However, to the loyal viewers it doesn’t hold water how they feel about them.

2 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

I don't have this channel to attack, defend, or argue. It's information based, where I share my work, and my opinions sometimes. All I can tell you is contained means the engine cases were not penetrated by engine parts. A lot of strange, unfortunate things happened with this engine, but the engine cases were not breached by anything. I am not interested in debating or redefining what accepted industry standards mean.

2 күн мурун
andy5478
andy5478

@AgentJayZ Wasn't SW 1380 also a contained failure and a part from the engine broke the window resulting in the pax death? Maybe it wasn't a fan blade but something flew off that engine and broke the window that resulted in a tragic death. It has to be moving fast and deliver sufficient force to break the window. Also as for the blade not having high energy when it departed the engine, this is curious to me. It's spinning very fast and it wants to pull itself forward as it leaves the engine when it fails, doesn't it? It still must have a whole lot of centripetal force that wants to throw itself radially outward, no?

2 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

Everything you said was great. Right up until the last sentence. This was a contained failure, which means no high energy parts ripped through the cases and penetrated the fuselage. The whole contained/uncontained issue is of critical importance to the aircraft maker, and the engine maker... and to the people who did not die. Luck had nothing to do with it... it was engineering, and it was safety requirements set by the NTSB and the FAA, and it was the skills of the flight crew, who dealt with this engine failure in the best way that any crew could have. No injuries is the most important part of the story.

2 күн мурун
charlie tang
charlie tang

well explained with you in-depth knowledge. thx

2 күн мурун
Arthur Saenz
Arthur Saenz

What I think I saw was yet another lack of proper ND Testing from United's engine overhaul practices. This is not the first time that this has happen to them. When the R/H start lever was moved to cutoff the EEC shut the engine off as its suppose to. The pylon fuel valve was closed by the R/H fire handle (there is no eng. 1 OR 2 on the 777) The fire in the right engine was the 5 quarts of fuel from the fuel filter case that ruptured at the lines and what was left from the main feed from the pylon. The 777 was climbing at a CLMB 1 power setting at a cost index of zero which translates to 314 knots when it gave way. Also when a two engine aircraft looses one of its engines, it a MAYDAY! This is standard world wide ICAO lingo and consistent with Boeing's FOM. Regardless of all the Monday night quarterbacking. Mine included. United has to answer as well as the ENGINE PMI (FAA) for lack of proper Non destructive testing and oversight of the fan blades.

2 күн мурун
Jerry Foust
Jerry Foust

Could not the engine and or the wing have easily exploded into flame?

2 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

If it was easy, it woulda happened.

2 күн мурун
Lon LeVine
Lon LeVine

Hi AgentJayZ. If the outer half of the broken blade was found in the soccer field amongst the cowling debris, and the other blade was found in the fuselage wing/LG fairing, it does not sound very contained to me. Perhaps the Kevlar blanket contained the blades at failure, but then they escaped? Kudos to Boeing for building an aircraft that could stand up to that vibrational abuse.

2 күн мурун
Stephen Gile
Stephen Gile

Don't know which videos you have watched but, in one of the ones I saw, for just a moment it looked like the was light passing through the Kevlar containment blanket at approximately the 11:00 to 11:30 position. My guess would be that the 1st fan blade that separated struck the 2nd blade on it's way out, fracturing it, then cutting through the nose cowl causing it to separate, with the rest of the cowl panels, not wanting to be left out, followed very quickly due to the slipstream air pressure. The second fan blade, the one with the outer 1/3 to 1/2 gone, may be the one that made the hole in the Kevlar containment blanket. . Just my thoughts and even though DIA is just a stones throw away, doubt they would let my butt in to look....LOL. Nice to have an A&P's side of the story.

2 күн мурун
Bryan Rocker
Bryan Rocker

INHO, the High Pressure compressor and its turbine(s) are probably trashed as well. When fan blades break off the collateral damage to the nacelle, other fan blades etc send bits of metal down stream and ultimately pass through the rest of the engine increasing the damage as it goes along. The fire in the thrust reverser area looks like an oil (hydraulic/lubricating). I don't trust the mainstream media to get anything right. P&W needs to get to the root of this problem and resolve it. This is not the first engine to have this failure mode.

2 күн мурун
Covid Hoax
Covid Hoax

Everybody is the expert on the internet.

3 күн мурун
Andrew
Andrew

Journalism is on life support these days. Most newspapers will just google "jet expert" and call the first number they find without checking if the person knows what they're talking about. That's assuming they even call somebody and don't just guess on their own.

3 күн мурун
Robert Bandusky
Robert Bandusky

When engine fire handle was pulled, we’re all fluids shutoff? Fuel, oil, hydraulics cutoff? Source of fire could have been hydraulic fluid or as you mentioned oil?

3 күн мурун
Mark Thompson
Mark Thompson

When the Fire extinguisher handle is pulled it automatically shut off engine fuel.

Күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

There is no magic valve that handles everything. The oil is in a tank on the engine. Even if hydraulic fluid was shut off to the engine, the amount that was already there would suffice to keep such a small fire going for a few minutes.

3 күн мурун
John van Kampen
John van Kampen

The same day above Meerssen, Netherlands, was rained by turbine parts from a B747 going to Lége (Luik) in Belgium due to engine failure: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p27hWAxGQaE

3 күн мурун
Matthew Spychalski
Matthew Spychalski

What do you think caused the damage to the underbelly of the plane? Just a piece of the outer casing shooting off?

3 күн мурун
Matthew Spychalski
Matthew Spychalski

@AgentJayZ awesome, just watched that, makes sense. Thanks for your video too, very informative

2 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

The NTSB has released an early statement about this. Blancolirio mention it in his latest vid.

2 күн мурун
zoidberg444
zoidberg444

Great to get all the facts. Aviation info for me is generally broncolirio or mentour pilot. You're the man for jet engines. 👌

3 күн мурун
Rob P.
Rob P.

Hairline Cracked fan blades is nothing new and FAA directives were already in place for X-raying fan blades at certain maintenance intervals - were these established FAA maintenance directives ignored or was this a failure in spite of the maintenance? In other words, was this engine maintained to existing standards or is it negligence?

3 күн мурун
Stephen Britt
Stephen Britt

Per the EAD, the FAA is requiring thermal imaging tests and reviewing previous tests on the blades. A previous blade failure in 2018 on a P&W 4000 had already prompted increased inspections on the fan blades. (Obviously did not solve the issue unfortunately.)

3 күн мурун
Robert Davis
Robert Davis

I think one of the blades failed and took out another one. I've flown times when a return to the FBO was needed because of an bad indicator light. A PITA. But I appreciate the Airline Co. taking safety seriously. Great observations Agent Jay Z!

3 күн мурун
Fernando Lichtschein
Fernando Lichtschein

Thanks for the explanation, when I saw the flames I thought I was looking at the exposed insides of the combustors.

3 күн мурун
A R
A R

I agree that MSM makes too much of aviation events. But it was an emergency and a serious event. Everyone stop complaining about MSM lying. It’s hyperbole and exaggeration out of ignorance, not lying. And by the way, there was an explosion strong enough to shed aircraft aircraft parts so that was a pretty major engine failure.

3 күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

Hyperbole or exaggeration out of ignorance it’s still unprofessional and uncalled for.

2 күн мурун
Bogbanter
Bogbanter

Question: was that damaged engine still producing thrust? Or it spinning due to air speed?

3 күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

You should subscribe to Juan’s channel he like AgentZ explained that very well.

2 күн мурун
James Samuel
James Samuel

If it didn’t windmill it would create excessive drag and make the aircraft very difficult to fly.

3 күн мурун
Johan Fasth
Johan Fasth

It's windmilling as he said.

3 күн мурун
Draviator
Draviator

Are you saying that the media is using fear-mongering to inflate a certain event? That's just impossible!

3 күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

The object to them is to get the majority to watch or read their Channel because it’s more interesting. Of course this is totally opposite of reporting the straight facts and not in line with what they’re real position should be.

2 күн мурун
Johan Fasth
Johan Fasth

:) Spot on...

3 күн мурун
Paul Glinz
Paul Glinz

I am struggling to understand, If none of the separated fan blades or fragments were to be found WITHIN the engine (I assume they were not-I may be wrong), then did they not DEPART the engine? And if so, how could that then be labelled a "contained failure" if they are nowhere to be seen ?

3 күн мурун
Ὅρα Μή·
Ὅρα Μή·

​@Paul Glinz Sir. The amount of kinetic energy of all moving parts within a turbine engine, as you already understand, is tremendous. In the case of a catastrophic turbine engine failure, the energy released is equivalent/similar to that of a detonation of a high explosive (nitroglycerin, TNT, HMX). What the industry is realistically concerned about, is containing that "explosion", thus safeguarding the airframe from being damaged/destroyed, and the lives of the passengers from being put to danger by the high velocity shrapnel (fan blades, turbine disc etc). Debri/engine parts falling off harmlessly (hopefully) after that initial "explosion" is inevitable, and realistically unavoidable. If after a turbine engine failure, the engine cases are intact (not breached) that is in fact, and realistically speaking a successful contained failure. In other words, the engine cases have successfully contained the "explosion" (i.e. the lethal high energy/velocity shrapnel).

Күн мурун
damientelle
damientelle

@AgentJayZ exactly it is a contained engine failure as it is defined for engine certification : no radial ejection of engine parts. for exemple AF and QL A380 engine failure were uncontained engine failure: Engine fairing gone as well but Fan gone on AF and HPT ripped off on QL. in both cases radial ejection did damaged wing and fuselage. UAL fligth may have damaged on wings due to fairing impact but these are low energy impact resulting of the aerodynamic forces applied on the fairing, not high kinetic energy impact resulting from rotating blades.

3 күн мурун
Paul Glinz
Paul Glinz

@AgentJayZ Thanks for the explanation. Don't get p.o.'d I'm just trying to learn something. Obviously I'm not a pilot or mechanic, just trying to understand the terminology being applied. Obviously it is a very "narrow" and legalistic definition of the word "contained" and not one used in everyday speech which is what most of the planet uses.

3 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

So tired of trying to explain to you people... Conversational definitions of words mean whatever you want. The industry definition of contained means the engine cases were not breached. The engine cases were not breached.

3 күн мурун
Quill Maurer
Quill Maurer

My understanding is that it can still be considered a contained failure if debris was ejected out the back, presumably not at extremely high speed, as that shouldn't damage the rest of the aircraft or endanger anyone - nothing behind the engine for it to hit. Uncontained would mean it threw stuff out the side or front that could damage the rest of the aircraft or injure it's occupants.

3 күн мурун
Dave Shepherd
Dave Shepherd

Thanks for spreading the truth!

3 күн мурун
HuckThis1971
HuckThis1971

I worked at Rolls-Royce Canada and I knew right away it was missing fan blades from that wobble. Engine design did its job of Containing the failure. Kevlar ring did its job. Worse case engine mounting bolts would have sheared and engine would have detached.

3 күн мурун
Dennis Salisbury
Dennis Salisbury

The reason I ignore the MSM at all times, they are worthless clickbait whores not worthy of the title journalists.

3 күн мурун
Dennis Salisbury
Dennis Salisbury

@lysippus We live in a world of compromises.

3 күн мурун
lysippus
lysippus

and youtube and youtube recco. is not? haaha.

3 күн мурун
viperdriver82
viperdriver82

I believe what they meant by "not an emergency landing" is that they won't have to brace during the landings

3 күн мурун
Quill Maurer
Quill Maurer

It would have been considered an emergency landing in that the pilots declared a mayday, but once actually landing it was a normal landing, and at that point I would imagine they wouldn't have asked passengers to brace.

3 күн мурун
Calvin Dodge
Calvin Dodge

To be fair, some blade fragments made a hole in the wing-body fairing on that side.

3 күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

@Calvin Dodge Geeze now that’s a real head scratcher huh? The response is made under your posted response. Ok to be more clear, AgentJayZ went thru great lengths to explain everything and patiently had to explain it all over again. In particular he clearly explained the quick use of wrong terms and inflation of such contradicting those made by officials involved in the investigation. One in question was parts whose nomenclature describes them as part of the engine or part of the aircraft airframe. At the time of your response the cause of damage at the wing fairing was unknown, to be fair. I hope I explained my simple response a little more so that you may understand it now. Oh your more than welcome.

23 саат мурун
Calvin Dodge
Calvin Dodge

@D. Geo Huh? Who or what are you referring to?

Күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

I think we have a media infiltrated here

2 күн мурун
Calvin Dodge
Calvin Dodge

@AgentJayZ Thanks for the info.

3 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

We don't know they were blade fragments, to be fair...

3 күн мурун
Joe Danay
Joe Danay

Thanks, Jay! I'm 4 days behind on this. Glad there's no injuries. Passengers will need laundry services;)

3 күн мурун
Dr. Qaiser Haider
Dr. Qaiser Haider

You are the guy who exactly knows what you are talking about. The total control over the subject. Love it.

3 күн мурун
Star Trooper
Star Trooper

L.p. shaft would break it's designed to fail in blade out event.

3 күн мурун
L M
L M

what the crap? no definitely not

3 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

No.

3 күн мурун
grahamj9101
grahamj9101

I've seen Juan Brown's latest video clip, which he posted outside the Albert Hall in London, after a ten-hour flight with tons of Californian asparagus in the back. I'm sorry (not really), but he got a black mark from me for being thoroughly irresponsible, and doing walkabout when we're in lockdown and being told to "stay at home"

3 күн мурун
grahamj9101
grahamj9101

@John Watkin We are in lockdown and we are being told to stay home, unless we have a "reasonable excuse" - and that incudes him. That's the law: he broke the law. I've visited the States a few times and I'm sure that I was exected to obey the law in the USA.

Күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

@Jesse W right with all of southern FL rotting away with the mess.

2 күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

Huh! Now how do you suppose he’s to do his job as a pilot at home plus he was out in the open and around no one in close proximity. He also started out wearing a mask that was removed by the London breeze. Come on we have enough agitators don’t need anymore.

2 күн мурун
Jesse W
Jesse W

I'm in Florida we don't even wear masks and been open for months. We have the lowest transmission rates btw

3 күн мурун
Jesse W
Jesse W

You're nuts

3 күн мурун
Yogib37
Yogib37

just found your channel. I agree with you on everything. I subcribed to the blanco channel and what you said about him is spot on, but he tell it in a normal way so other people can understand. I dont like the Media just jumping in and say it is this or that, I knew even before the picture was uploaded it was caused by a blade the let go. I guess the media has never seen pictures on a normal engine change that the Nacell's are still attached to the plane.. You are right it is part of the plane. I am an A&P but have not been working on planes for a very long time.

3 күн мурун
abcd60528
abcd60528

Very true that it was very lucky!

3 күн мурун
David Sullivan
David Sullivan

For the media, this is an entertainment event. The more drama the higher the ratings. Facts are not relevant.

3 күн мурун
thomas mcdonald
thomas mcdonald

Man that’s the truth!

2 күн мурун
Mikeydude001
Mikeydude001

People personally involved in something the media reports about knows that the media usually gets the facts wrong. Then we go on to the next story and believe it? LOL.

3 күн мурун
Ron Adams
Ron Adams

Thanks for the break-down and info. Good stuff, well presented!

3 күн мурун
Herbert Laughlin
Herbert Laughlin

I think that the fan blades failed due to metal fatigue and 1.5 fan blades exited out the front taking the engine inlet cowling and the main cowling mounting bracket with it. In addition, it appeared from the video that the engine lost all of it covers when the main cowling support bracket was severed by parts of the fan. That 8 foot long heavy chunk of metal that hit the street next to an SUV, heard audibly, falling from 14,000 feet, gaining speed every second until impact could have cause catastrophic damage had it hit a home. I bet when they examine the broken blades, they discover that they failed due to loss of stiffness. The same thing that happens to steel ships on the ocean. They are forced to be retired do to metal fatigue. Metal that flexes looses stiffness and after a period of time, it breaks! Why are they ignoring the facts????

3 күн мурун
D. Geo
D. Geo

Until it reaches terminal velocity, BTW what news paper do you write for?

2 күн мурун
clapanse
clapanse

It's certainly possible it was a fatigue failure, and this wouldn't be the first undetected fatigue failure on one of these. http://aerossurance.com/safety-management/ndi-failures-b777-pw4077-fbo/ I've also heard some speculation that it's possibly a bird strike, but we'll probably need to wait for the incident report to know for sure.

3 күн мурун
azonicrider32
azonicrider32

@Herbert Laughlin Dude, you are explaining the abc's to rocket scientists..

3 күн мурун
Herbert Laughlin
Herbert Laughlin

@grahamj9101 Thanks for your comment and I agree. I suggest that hollow blades on larger applications may have increased stresses not previously determined?

3 күн мурун
grahamj9101
grahamj9101

The industry knows far more about metal fatigue than you do - obviously. Components such as blades are designed to avoid excessive excitation that will result in them having unacceptably low fatigue lives, and they are rigorously inspected at repair and overhaul for any signs of fatigue. Major components, such as discs and shafts are designed to a 'predicted safe cyclic life' (PSCL), but are cleared for only a small proportion of their PSCL at entry into service, with lives being extended progressively, by means of sampling and inspection. It is probable that there is some internal non-conforming feature, relative to design intent, in those blades that have failed, which cannot be inspected easily. The vast majority of blades have, after all, run perfectly safely for tens of thousands of hours. If they hadn't done so, then there would have been the risk of engine and/or cowling debris being scattered around the world years ago, and PW 4000 engines would have been grounded years ago.

3 күн мурун
Almerinda Romeira
Almerinda Romeira

So the giant hole in the fuselage was already there?? It IS an uncontainned failure engine...

4 күн мурун
uploadJ
uploadJ

@Almerinda Romeira re: "you shouldn't rate it for how bad it was, but how bad it could have been." Just have to say, this is NUTS. I'll bet you're for outcome based equality too, and not for equal opportunity to SUCCEED!

Күн мурун
Almerinda Romeira
Almerinda Romeira

@Yogib37 you shouldn't rate it for how bad it was, but how bad it could have been. I know its non critical but if it broke it, it could easily also have ruptured a line or cable behind it. After all composites have sharp edges. I'll wait for the final report, as I'm not so convinced it was just a cowling piece.

3 күн мурун
Yogib37
Yogib37

@Almerinda Romeira that is an aerodynamic fairing.. It is nothing but just a thin piece of composite. Nothing under that was damage and it was not caused by the fan blade, It most likely was part of the Nacell that broke off and hit it. It is still a contain engine failure. The engine was in tack and not scatter all over the place

3 күн мурун
Ron Adams
Ron Adams

Sorry, I corrected my original response. I'm not sure why, but I typed "uncontained", when he actually said they did "not consider it to be uncontained". Regardless, I understand the liability issue. https://youtu.be/-VfGJsfS13g?t=1422

3 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

Ron. It is a very important detail. Who gets blamed for the millions of dollars in damage... the aircraft maker or the engine maker? The NTSB has decided this was a contained engine failure. The blame game is complicated, but crucial.

3 күн мурун
SIE44TAR
SIE44TAR

11:18 "I gotta say, the journalists know nothing. They don't know anything." Yep, that about sums up today's media.

4 күн мурун
lysippus
lysippus

That sums up about today's politicians.

3 күн мурун
yankmyfinger
yankmyfinger

Great analysis JayZ. Good Job. I agree with everything you said. Retired airline pilot here. This was a textbook simulator event. We would train for this type of event every year. The weather was good. It was daylight. Great airport, Aircraft, ATC and well trained pilots.

4 күн мурун
Nicholas Pratt
Nicholas Pratt

Where did the missing 1½ fan blades go after leaving that cut in the front air inlet ring..

4 күн мурун
Robert Slugg
Robert Slugg

@grahamj9101 Yes, I saw that, but portion is pretty non-specific. I am guessing that it is smaller than "chunk." ;-) I did once work in a lab where smidge, tad, little, and lot had specific numerical values assigned to them.

3 күн мурун
grahamj9101
grahamj9101

@Robert Slugg Juan Brown, in his latest Blancolirio video, reports that a portion of one fan blade was found stuck somewhere in the casing, "at the one o'clock position", while another portion of a fan blade was found on the sports field where other debris fell. Which portion is from the blade that suffered the primary failure, and which is from the blade that is assumed (for the moment) to have been brought off by the primary failure, we'll have to wait for the NTSB.

3 күн мурун
Herbert Laughlin
Herbert Laughlin

My question too. Thanks Dude!!!

3 күн мурун
Robert Slugg
Robert Slugg

Speculation is that one blade cut through the front cowling (large diagonal slash) which then accelerated that separation as an intact piece. Will be interesting to see where and when the blade fragments are found. 99.9% contained is probably the more accurate assessment if 34lbs of carbon and/or titanium exited the front on the way down. If blade is rotating at 600 mph and plane is flying 200 mph then the odds are higher that the blade will go forward at that point in time. But what do I know?

4 күн мурун
supercat380
supercat380

Excellent commentary and analysis, Agent JZ! Nice to hear some logic after all the nonsense expressed by the fake news media and other so- called aviation experts!

4 күн мурун
supercat380
supercat380

@lysippus you are absolutely correct, Sir!!

3 күн мурун
lysippus
lysippus

Excellent commentary by you as well. I wish more people would cancel media, who cares anymore? NYT? lol. WaPo? These people should be put in jail for false things. I watched a show on fox that aviation expert David Johannson (he flew dc-10's for 40 years) explained how this thing happens. The federal government is always to blame. Simple as that.

3 күн мурун
paulsautocm
paulsautocm

BRAVO, this is why I follow you and Blancollrio. Keep up the GREAT work!

4 күн мурун
Rocco Sound
Rocco Sound

Excellent video, keep up the good work. So nice to hear cool calm engineering facts. Ive been an engineer working on PT6 TPE-331 and CFM56 for the last 33 years. This is a bit similar to the Southwest Airlines 737 incident in which the tremendous energy from the contained engine failure caused the cowl hinges or cowl latches to fail, thus causing the cowl to break up and separate from the airplane. Most people don't appreciate the amount of energy involved in a broken fan blade. In both the Southwest incident and United 328 incident the engine failures were contained. Well done to the boys who designed the debris containment shield-it worked as advertised.

4 күн мурун
Brian Whippen
Brian Whippen

How many engine hours on this engine or the fan would be more important because that seems to be the actual failure. More importantly probably landing takeoffs would give more insight I’m sure the experts will figure this out and make a correction. I am a mechanic as well, think about the load on that blade when the engine is nearly full thus going down the runway.

4 күн мурун
azonicrider32
azonicrider32

Ya they should check the mileage on that puppy, probably way past its oil change!

3 күн мурун
a4yster
a4yster

Is that Moldovan flag?? Surprising to say the least!

4 күн мурун
Armorer 94
Armorer 94

According to Blancolirio, the 1/2 blade was found inside the compressor stage. The complete blade is still MIA.

4 күн мурун
android emulator
android emulator

Calm , lucid , sensible facts .. thanks :)

4 күн мурун
William Pickett
William Pickett

Was that a JT-8 C-2 Fan disk that you had leaning their on your right

4 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

RR Spey

4 күн мурун
yxvpjs
yxvpjs

Jayz ... what engine behind you ... very interesting ... does it P&W J75 ... (just guest)

4 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

Orenda 14 out of an F-86F Sabre / Canadair Sabre 6

4 күн мурун
Android811
Android811

I would NOT like to be the guy who signed off on the last fan inspection when the FAA comes knocking.

4 күн мурун
thomas mcdonald
thomas mcdonald

Hopefully he works at a shop that has equipment to record all their inspections in detail for just such an event.

2 күн мурун
mer8771
mer8771

Thank you for putting the truth out, I just wish people or the human condition would allow people to believe it. I've seen you stand up for what is right over the years and I think you for it. People really need to question everything and not believe the first person who opens their mouth or speaks the loudest. Truly an unbelievable job you do to disseminate knowledge. 👍 Juan Browne or, blancolirio is great at the other part of aviation just as you said.

4 күн мурун
First Last
First Last

One blade or part of coming off the fan disk and causing the damage that it did is by all technical definitions, an uncontained engine failure. It's not drama, it's a simple fact.

4 күн мурун
Kalvinjj
Kalvinjj

The strict definition of an uncontained engine failure is that any debris or engine parts that fail penetrate the protections and exit through those protections. Simply put, the engine's cowling cannot hold the parts inside, does not contain them. A part that exits through the back of the engine for example, but didn't manage to open the protective rings is still considered a contained engine failure. Same if the part got stuck on that protection but didn't exit through it. The engine covers you see from outside don't count for that definition, they're mostly there for aerodynamics reasons. If it does whoever open up a hole through it, that in turn is uncontained. The definition itself can only be properly applied after inspecting the engine tho, from the angle seen it could very well have been uncontained if there was a hole open on the side not seen by the passengers, tho there wasn't thankfully. AgentJayZ could have been far more helpful on the reply tho no doubt. just that whole lot of "ignorant" there helped literally no one. If it was well defined on the the video, a time stamp would be enough. Otherwise, just copy and paste the definition also works.

4 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

You are completely incorrect. That is forgivable because there is a very strict definition of uncontained, of which you are completely ignorant. FYI : on Feb 23 , the NTSB described the failure as contained. So you are doubly ignorant. Put that on a sticker, and have a grown up stick it on your back. Then go away. Thank you.

4 күн мурун
TransitBiker
TransitBiker

“The engine exploded” direct words from news outlet.

4 күн мурун
Brother Malachai
Brother Malachai

Wanted to share this as a pilot spoke on the same incident from his perspective. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5Wler87pwY

4 күн мурун
mikoyanfulcrum1
mikoyanfulcrum1

I love it how boeing's stock took a hit yet Boeing doesnt make engines,.... Stupid public!!!

4 күн мурун
Android811
Android811

That's a buying opportunity!

4 күн мурун
Brother Malachai
Brother Malachai

When the investigation report inevitably comes out, can you come back and comment more on this incident from an insider's perspective?

4 күн мурун
Mark Grant
Mark Grant

Journalists over reaction is so sad. Love you guys always!

4 күн мурун
Brother Malachai
Brother Malachai

Journalists are going to muckrake. "If it bleeds it leads."

4 күн мурун
BMachine2
BMachine2

Thanks AgentJayZ, always glad to learn from you. Can you do a followup on this once they have the whole story?

4 күн мурун
fzj801996
fzj801996

Thanks AgentJayZ for posting this!

4 күн мурун
Cheezy Dee
Cheezy Dee

I'm an aerospace technician with approximately 7 hours of experience watching turbine engine videos and I have conducted my own investigation of the incident and I have concluded that the engine went "kaboom", not the "Big Badda Boom" as reported in the media as there were no burn marks on the wing and apparently no holes in the fuselage as the passengers were able to video the wobbly smoldering engine. I also believe the engine is not shaking due to imbalance but it is in fact shivering due to it's clothes being ripped off in midair in subzero temperatures.

4 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

That's pretty weezy, Cheezy Dee, but I like it! We could use someone like you, to translate between shop talk that the people working on the engines use, and whatever flavor of double-speak garble that management uses this year. "moving forward" I'm barfing now...

4 күн мурун
Steve Roberts
Steve Roberts

Really glad you got that off your chest Jay :D

4 күн мурун
Jaja Jaja
Jaja Jaja

This is not the first time these engines has failed . Next time it can be worst . I believe the FAA put a service warning out on these engines.

4 күн мурун
Luk S
Luk S

Love the engine vids thanks for explaining.

4 күн мурун
theonlyari
theonlyari

With this much sensationalism, imagine what would happen if there was a pandemic!

4 күн мурун
Robert Slugg
Robert Slugg

They have contained themselves to only be off by an order of magnitude on that one, so far, IMHO. There is a lot of difference between dying "with" something and dying "from" something, which got lost a long time ago.

3 күн мурун
A Mascia
A Mascia

Like you said: could have been much worse. Sometimes things work. 👍🏼🤠

4 күн мурун
DJ
DJ

Vibration causing the cowl separation is more credible than the intake cowl being sliced off by a bent blade. Should the engine have been shut down earlier when excess vibration noticed as this would have saved the cowls.

4 күн мурун
uploadJ
uploadJ

@Robert Slugg Either way gents, that still looks like a nice slice into that cowling ...

Күн мурун
Robert Slugg
Robert Slugg

@Curt Austin (Disclaimer, PhD brain scientist and I took mechanics 45 years ago.) A thought came to me last night when I of course didn't have internet access. In the vector model, we are probably assuming that the blade snapped instantaneously (microseconds) and thus all outward momentum went outward and as you say, into the kevlar belt. But, what if the separation was not instantaneous along the bottom of the blade, but say started at the back and progressed to the front over the course of some small number of milliseconds. This might then enable the blade to angle forward (tilt) due to the thrust component induced by compressing the air behind it. Lets say that it tilts forward by 6 or 12 inches at the blade end before being completely let go by the hub. This might then put parts of the blade beyond the containment capabilities of the kevlar belt, perhaps allowing it to slide forward within the nacelle until it sheared sheared through the cowling. We all agree it broke, but I think the jury is still out as to how, and also "how," it broke. Snap or shear?

Күн мурун
Robert Slugg
Robert Slugg

@Curt Austin I watched one and a bunch of stuff did end up forward of the extended nacelle housing they were using. Maybe not blades, but certainly "stuff." Of course, this was stationary so a significant force component was absent from the test scenario. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5-8_Gnbp2JA So if the vectors are taking it laterally, what are the possibilities of the blade then sticking and rotating forwards. I am assuming that the mass in the blade is concentrated closer to the hub, so if there is a forward directed moment, could it lead to a rotation of the blade (cartwheel) which could then explain the angled slice perforation that we see in the otherwise intact cowling on the ground. I am almost certain that the blade and the cowling were intimate at some point based on the visual evidence, the big questions being when, and what part of the blade. This will be a learning experience for all, of that I am certain

3 күн мурун
Curt Austin
Curt Austin

@Robert Slugg I'm saying the vectors of the aero force and the centrifugal force - just before liberation - sum to nearly entirely in the radial direction, because 34 lbs spinning at around 2000 rpm at a radius of about three feet works out to a lot more than thrust/number of blades. I vaguely recall that that the disk of a CF6-80C2. (a smaller engine) must withstand about a million lbs of outward force from the blades, which can be compared to about 60,000 lbs of thrust. In any case, I can assure you that the engineers put the kevlar in the right place. You don't have to believe me (PhD engineer, 20 years at GE Aircraft Engines) - just watch some YouTubes of blade-out testing. Nacelles are not part of that testing, incidentally.

3 күн мурун
Robert Slugg
Robert Slugg

@Curt Austin Thing is, blade fragments are at an angle and pushing against air which causes them to act as a wing foil and thus move forward as well as outward. Grab a pen and paper and do the vector diagram. In addition to the 600mph tip speed, that whole blade is also moving forward at 200 mph. It is intuitively obvious to anyone who has thrown a snowball from a speeding car. The snowball at 45mph does not somehow end up behind the car moving at 60mph.

3 күн мурун
MrSwimfinz123
MrSwimfinz123

Nice report, very interesting. I love your delivery. We all do!

4 күн мурун
Earth Wisdom Productions
Earth Wisdom Productions

One news reporter I listened to, based on some ATC exchanges, reported the pilot saying “... heavy engine failure...” Of course this was the pilot identifying himself as “328 heavy.”

4 күн мурун
Darcy Hildebrand
Darcy Hildebrand

AgentJayZ: What is your take on the photos of damage to the fuselage adjacent to failed engine? Caused by broken fan or turbine blades?

4 күн мурун
Master Warning
Master Warning

I saw photos of a large hole in the wing root area underwing section right up against the fuselage. It looked to be about a foot by 2 feet in length. Also, the flight crew can make the Mayday call to ATC and later downgrade the emergency claim. So the pilots telling passengers that they are not in an emergency..I.e. not expecting aircraft loss/further damage or passenger loss..may very well have occurred

4 күн мурун
Kalvinjj
Kalvinjj

My bet for that hole is likely that engine cover being torn off and ripping through that part. Thankfully no hydraulic/electric lines ruptured that affected enough on the flight controls.

4 күн мурун
Steve Flor
Steve Flor

It is amazing to me that engine pylon DID NOT fail. And, it was able to withstand the immense torque generated by the inbalance.

4 күн мурун
Mike M
Mike M

Looked like the fan blade may have cut the forward cowling/shroud detaching it and the fan blade went out forwards (perhaps a combination of pressure and momentum from the collision.. Doesn't that make it an uncontained failure even if not a whole disk? If all the fan blades are generating pressure aft doe it mean that one blade can be blown forward by the pressure generated by all of the others?

4 күн мурун
Kalvinjj
Kalvinjj

the thrust from the blade itself would just turn it sideways to the position it encounters equilibrium, and then the air around (and suction from the rest of the engine) would just push it back. An entire fan disk failing without losing it's round shape, still rotating (let's say, it detaches from the shaft clear) might propel itself some amount, but if that is enough to maintain it going forward after no torque is applied to the shaft (if it fails of course there won't be any), I would say is unlikely on flight conditions, on ground tests it probably can propel itself some amount but not with the airspeed they have up in the sky.

4 күн мурун
Mike M
Mike M

@Njål Nilssen Have done. But with one and a bit blades floating around at high speed they could hit the wall and at that speed with leverage I could still see bits going forward. The witness marks on the cowling will be interesting.

4 күн мурун
Njål Nilssen
Njål Nilssen

Angular momentum force trying to pull the blades out radially are ten-folds higher than any foreward momentum provided by thrust. If in doubt watch videos from "blade-out" test done during engine trials.

4 күн мурун
Justin Simonsen
Justin Simonsen

I learned more from your video in three minutes then anywhere else. Also you are very funny which helps.

4 күн мурун
Craig Tripney
Craig Tripney

Looks like some parts did get through ..........

5 күн мурун
Craig Tripney
Craig Tripney

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f6JoJj_v9Cs

5 күн мурун
that guy
that guy

how much does a jet engine overhaul cost?

5 күн мурун
AgentJayZ
AgentJayZ

Depends on the engine. One of these commercial airliner engines will cost many thousands of worker hours and likely a couple million in parts.

4 күн мурун
T4L0N57
T4L0N57

Why do people listen to the media at all anymore? Has the media done anything you useful for like the past 20 or 30 years? We need new media, old media is dead.

5 күн мурун
James Gray
James Gray

When ratings, clicks and views are what generates revenue, the truth is the first casualty. What passes as “truth” now has more to do with who is paying for it than any actual facts or reality.

4 күн мурун
None None
None None

seems like there have been several "lost shroud" exposed engine failures in the past few years

5 күн мурун

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